By Zhigang Xiang

Ratings of examples and difficulties enable scholars to hone their talents. transparent reasons of primary initiatives facilitate scholars’ knowing of significant ideas. New! Chapters on shading types, shadow, and texture―including the Phong illumination model―explain the newest options and instruments for attaining photorealism in special effects.

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**Schaum’s Outline of Computer Graphics**

Ratings of examples and difficulties enable scholars to hone their talents. transparent motives of primary initiatives facilitate scholars’ realizing of significant thoughts. New! Chapters on shading versions, shadow, and texture―including the Phong illumination model―explain the most recent ideas and instruments for reaching photorealism in special effects.

**Additional info for Schaum’s Outline of Computer Graphics**

**Example text**

On the other hand, an attempt to maintain equal spacing will greatly distort the overall length of the fence [see Fig. 3-24(c)]. This is sometimes called local aliasing, as the distances between pickets are kept close to their true distances. (a) (b) Fig. 3-24 The picket fence problem. Another example of such a problem arises with the outline font. Suppose we want to scan-convert the uppercase character "E" in Fig. 3-25(a) from its outline description to a bitmap consisting of pixels inside the region defined by the outline.

Produce characters. This alternative is particularly effective in limiting scan-conversion time when the characters have repetitive occurrences in the image. 9 ANTI-ALIASING Scan conversion is essentially a systematic approach to mapping objects that are denned in continuous space to their discrete approximation. The various forms of distortion that result from this operation are collectively referred to as the aliasing effects of scan conversion. Staircase A common example of aliasing effects is the staircase or jagged appearance we see when scanconverting a primitive such as a line or a circle.

Polynomial Method of Defining an Ellipse The polynomial method of defining an ellipse (Fig. 3-9) is given by the expression (x - hf , (y - kf b2 = 1 where (h, k) = ellipse center a = length of major axis b = length of minor axis When the polynomial method is used to define an ellipse, the value of x is incremented from h to a. For each step of x, each value of y is found by evaluating the expression This method is very inefficient, however, because the squares of a and (x — h) must be found; then floatingpoint division of (x — h) by a2 and floating-point multiplication of the square root of [1 — (x — h) /a2] by b must be performed (see Prob.

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