By Patricia Molina
The top endocrine evaluation on hand for the USMLE Step 1
The fourth variation of Endocrine Physiology offers entire insurance of the fundamental technology and anatomy in the back of endocrine functionality. With its concentrate on must-know rules, Endocrine Physiolology is the easiest evaluate on hand for the USMLE Step 1 and the correct reference for citizens and fellows.
- NEW! boxed medical case situations let scholars to use info to actual lifestyles eventualities
- Learning aids comprise targets, key strategies, a precis, and assessment questions
- Covers the rules of endocrinology and metabolism on a system-by-system, organ-by-organ basis
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Extra info for Endocrine Physiology
AVP RECEPTORS The cellular effects of AVP are mediated by binding to G protein–coupled membrane receptors. Three AVP receptors have been characterized thus far, which differ in terms of where they are expressed as well as in the specific G proteins to which they are coupled and, thus, in the second-messenger systems that they activate. V1 R (also known as V 1a ) is coupled to Gq/11 and is specific for AVP. It is found in the liver, smooth muscle, brain, and adrenal glands. It activates phospholipases C, D, and A2 and stimulates the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol, resulting in an increase in intracellular calcium concentrations.
Estradiol enhances LH and inhibits FSH release, whereas inhibins A and B, gonadal glycoprotein hormones, reduce FSH secretion (Chapter 9). The complexity of the regulation of synthesis and release of anterior pituitary hormones is best illustrated by the cyclic nature of FSH and LH release. The pattern of GnRH pulses changes during the menstrual cycle in women, as summarized in Table 3–2 and discussed in detail in Chapter 9. During the luteal to follicular phase transition, pulses of GnRH release occur every 90–120 minutes, and FSH secretion predominates.
It is the only aquaporin that is directly regulated by ADH via the V2 AVP receptor. Aquaporins 3 (AQP3) and 4 (AQP4) are constitutively expressed in the basolateral membranes of the collecting ducts and contribute to the enhanced water reabsorption following AQP2 insertion into the luminal membrane. Water that enters the epithelial cell through AQP2 on the apical membrane leaves the cell through AQP3 and AQP4, located in the basolateral membranes of these cells, eventually entering the vasculature.
Categories: Endocrinology Metabolism