Authority and Expertise in Ancient Scientific Culture by Jason König, Greg Woolf

By Jason König, Greg Woolf

How did historical clinical and knowledge-ordering writers make their paintings authoritative? This e-book solutions that query for a variety of historic disciplines, from arithmetic, drugs, structure and agriculture, via to legislations, historiography and philosophy - focusing ordinarily, yet no longer completely, at the literature of the Roman Empire. It attracts recognition to conduct that those assorted fields had in universal, whereas additionally exhibiting how person texts and authors manipulated usual innovations of self-authorisation in specific methods. It stresses the significance of aggressive and assertive types of self-presentation, and in addition examines the various pressures that pulled within the wrong way by means of taking a look at authors who selected to recognize the restrictions in their personal wisdom or resisted shut identity with slender models of professional identification. a last bankruptcy by means of Sir Geoffrey Lloyd bargains a comparative account of clinical authority and services in historic chinese language, Indian and Mesopotamian culture.

"A significant strand of contemporary ancient-science scholarship has given prominence to questions on how historical scientists represented themselves and their disciplines, and especially how they made their writings authoritative. /.../ old specialists needed to paintings a lot tougher than their glossy opposite numbers to persuade their audiences and strength consumers and scholars, by means of rhetorical skill, in their competence, and so tended to arrive for selfassertive and ostentatiously cutting edge first-person personas. In that feel cognizance to character and authority is likely to be a good extra noticeable precedence for the traditional global than for contemporary technological know-how, provided that the clinical ‘I’ used to be frequently much more well-liked. There at the moment are many guides which pay severe recognition to those concerns for particular texts and authors. The paintings of Galen, the nice clinical author of the second one century CE, is an seen instance. the extreme diversity of his surviving works and the prominence of his personal character in lots of of his writings make him an awesome candidate for viewing historic medical self-assertion in motion. And in lots of respects his paintings is commonplace of historic scientificwritingmore broadly.He supplies a favorite function tohis personal character. he's continually aggressive: he usually debunks rival practitioners and rival disciplines which don't degree as much as the philosophically encouraged clinical wisdom he himself espouses. He attracts realization to his personal ethical advantage in methods which deliver an influence of reliability. He additionally attracts realization to his remarkably extensive studying. His authority rests partially on his difficult wisdom of the paintings of his predecessors, and his alignment of himselfwith that culture, particularly in his opportunistic appropriation of the writings of the Hippocratic corpus in order that they come to check his personal clinical perspectives. whilst he again and again demanding situations acquired knowledge. sometimes, he does that via a declare to non-public adventure and remark, for instance in his common narration of incidents from his broad scientific adventure and in his widespread money owed of experimentation at the our bodies of animals (in a few situations performed in entrance of an viewers, in a manner which permits him to delight in public refutation and humiliation of his poorly knowledgeable rivals). He additionally many times attracts attentiontothe complexity of themedical expertisewhichhe espouses,writing at size at the quite a few subdivisions of the paintings of drugs, after which in flip subdividing, in greatly advanced methods, some of the subdisciplines of scientific wisdom, as a way to go away a magnificent feel of his command over a really refined physique of knowledge.9 Many different authors too have began to be analysed for his or her use of those and different similar strategies of self-presentation, whether there are few different authors who use them whatever like so richly and forcefully as Galen. one in every of our arguments during this quantity, even if, is that much more has to be performed to appreciate the connections among diversified our bodies of workmanship and varied authors of their thoughts of self-authorisation."

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Heath 2004: xvi, pointing out that Philostratus’ lack of interest in day-to-day training makes him very unreliable as a witness to mainstream rhetorical culture in the Roman Empire. For discussion of these terms, see Civiletti 2002: 576–7, with ref. 7 and Philostratus’ lack of interest in Hermogenes’ theoretical writings there. org/core. org/core/terms. 10, 590, we hear that Hadrian of Tyre ‘was abundant in his ideas and brilliant . . but his speech was not orderly, nor did he follow the rules of technˆe .

For example, at 76 77 78 Cf. Eshleman 2012: 125–48. One of the arguments of her book as a whole is that we need to take more account of the overlaps between Greco-Roman and early Christian groups in their strategies of self-authorisation. Cf. Heath 2004: xvi, pointing out that Philostratus’ lack of interest in day-to-day training makes him very unreliable as a witness to mainstream rhetorical culture in the Roman Empire. For discussion of these terms, see Civiletti 2002: 576–7, with ref. 7 and Philostratus’ lack of interest in Hermogenes’ theoretical writings there.

781f–2b; the debt to the Sun simile of Pl. Resp. 508a–9c is obvious. org/core. org/core/terms. 003 38 michael trapp There is no strong sense, however, in either of Plutarch’s essays of any kind of tension or struggle in the encounter of philosophical with political authority. Rather, it is suggested, in a way that implicitly flatters any ruler who happens to be reading, that as thinking beings, right-minded leaders will of course acknowledge the value and truth of philosophical discourse when exposed to it, and act accordingly.

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