By Jay Skyler
This instruction manual is a useful source for bettering the administration of diabetes. Chapters disguise the basics, together with epidemiology, historical past and actual exam, and useful reviews. Diabetes in kids, youngsters, adults, and geriatrics are addressed. Differential prognosis is emphasised, and evidence-based instructions and patient-specific concerns reduction the reader with harm assessment and care. particularly, the e-book highlights the significance of figuring out diabetic signs while settling on the resource of health problems. furthermore, the textual content provides the spectrum of treatments for diabetes. The e-book is whole with appendices that specify the evidence-based technique used all through and the technological know-how at the back of healing modalities.
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Extra info for Atlas of Diabetes
FIGURE 2-16. The integrative role of IRS2 in pancreatic b cells. The diagram shows the relation between the MODY genes, especially PDX1, and the IRS2 branch of the insulin signaling pathway . Drugs that promote IRS2 signaling are expected to promote the phosphorylation of BAD and FOXO1, which enhance b-cell growth, function, and survival. Many factors are required for proper b-cell function, including the homeodomain transcription factor PDX1. PDX1 regulates downstream genes needed for b-cell growth and function, and mutations in PDX1 cause autosomal forms of early-onset diabetes in people (MODY) [120, 121].
The mTORC2 complex is also composed of mTOR and mLST8, but instead of raptor, this rapamycin-insensitive complex contains rictor and mSIN1 and is regulated mainly by nutrients. Downstream effectors of mTORC1 – p70S6K and 4E-BP1 – control protein synthesis and cell growth. The p70S6K occurs as two isoforms called p70S6K1 and p70S6K2. Disruption of the S6k1 gene in mice causes glucose intolerance owing to reduced size of pancreatic islet b cells; however, peripheral insulin action is enhanced, suggesting that p70S6K1 contributes to feedback inhibition of insulin signaling .
J Biol Chem 1999, 274:2593–2596. 94. Khan AH, Pessin JE: Insulin regulation of glucose uptake: a complex interplay of intracellular signalling pathways. Diabetologia 2002, 45:1475–1483. 95. Farese RV: Function and dysfunction of aPKC isoforms for glucose transport in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant states. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2002, 283:E1–E11. 96. : Protein kinase C-lambda knockout in embryonic stem cells and adipocytes impairs insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Mol Endocrinol 2004, 18:373–383.
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