# Applied Instrumentation in the Process Industries: Practical by William G Andrew

By William G Andrew

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Additional resources for Applied Instrumentation in the Process Industries: Practical Guidelines

Example text

Assuming VS = VR = V , the following equations can be written from the circuit shown in Fig. 17. 89) δ − jZn tan Iˆm = Vˆm − θ 2 2 cos 2 2. 91) where (the voltage (Vˆr ) leads the current (Iˆm ) as it is assumed to be a voltage rise in the direction of the current). 94) Comparison between STATCOM and SSSC in Enhancing Power Transfer The power angle expression for a SSSC is given by P = A sin δ + B cos δ 2 It can be shown that P is maximum at δ = δp and 0 < δp < 90◦ . On the other hand, the power is nonzero for δ = 0.

It can be seen from Fig. f. load 2. 5: Phasor diagram of voltages At no load (PR = 0), the voltage at the receiving end is higher than the sending due to the line charging. This is termed as Ferranti Effect. 36) This can be excessive as θ increases. At line lengths approaching quarter wavelength, VR0 is very high. Note that VR0 is bounded in real lines as the resistance of the line cannot be ignored at high charging currents. 37) This also increases as θ increases and can overload the generator.

This shows the limitation of providing fixed capacitors at load bus for voltage support. 5, any incremental increase in the load results in voltage collapse. 0 at all times irrespective of the load. 0 which is double of the value corresponding to case (ii) or (iii). This example highlights the importance of reactive power compensation at a load bus if there are no generators in the vicinity to regulate the bus voltage. It is interesting to note that reference [4] mentions the possibility of utilizing the excellent voltage control capability of shunt FACTS controllers (such as STATCOM) to replace older, less efficient urban generation that is “must run” for voltage support in that area.