By J. A. McLean
This quantity offers a finished survey of the speculation, perform, and strategies of calorimetry as utilized to the research of power metabolism in people and animals. Calorimetry is used to estimate dietary necessities of guy and farm cattle and to guage varied meals. it's also a robust instrument utilized in study into primary dietary and physiological lifestyles methods and within the overview of stresses imposed via irregular or serious environments. it really is at present being utilized in a variety of branches of scientific examine and will be used as a diagnostic instrument in hospitals for research of metabolic issues. The authors speak about either direct calorimetry, which measures warmth loss without delay, and oblique calorimetry, the place warmth loss is inferred by means of dimension of a few of the chemical byproducts of metabolism. moreover, information is equipped to the instrumentation, technical difficulties, and precautions essential to receive actual calorimetric measurements.
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Additional resources for Animal and Human Calorimetry
1. 71). 0 and rK = 1 for carbohydrate, it is possible from measurements of both oxygen consumed and carbon dioxide produced to estimate both the heat output and the composition of the mixture. Suppose, for example, that the quantities of oxygen and carbon dioxide are 100 and 90 1 respectively. 71x1 and that from carbohydrate is (100-x) 1. 5 1. 5 1 of oxygen must have been used to oxidise carbohydrate. 75) = 2063 kJ (491 kcal). This type of calculation forms the basis for the well known table of values for analysis of mixtures of fat and carbohydrate which was modified by Lusk (1928) from original data of Zuntz and Schumburg.
1958) the temperature gradient was measured not across a still-air gap or kapok lining, but across a thin plastic (plexiglass) sheet. A series of very many interlaced thermocouples all connected in series measured the mean temperature gradient across this thin sheet which formed a complete internal lining over all surfaces of the chamber. The output voltage from the thermocouple network gave an accurate and rapidly responding measurement of the non-evaporative heat output from the subject. Using a series of heat exchangers lined with similar gradient layers, which he called platemeters, Benzinger was also able to measure the evaporative heat losses from his subjects.
All of these were adiabatic (heat-sink) direct calorimeters and incorporated facilities for simultaneous measurement of respiratory exchange by either closed- or open-circuit principles. These machines were built before the days of automatic control and analysis. , and made manual adjustments to valves and rheostats to maintain constant conditions in and around the chamber. Gas samples had to be collected manually over mercury and transferred to volumetric apparatus for chemical analysis; in fact nearly all measurements and analyses were laborious operations.
Categories: Endocrinology Metabolism