By S. Mauw, G. J. Veltink
Sleek desktop networks now circle the realm, however the transmission of data between them relies on the numerous various protocols that outline the habit of the sender and receiver. it's transparent for that reason, that the exact description of those protocols is critical if harmonious verbal exchange is to be maintained. during this booklet the authors use the formal specification language PSF to supply an unambiguous description of a number of communique protocols of various degrees of complexity, starting from the alternating bit protocol to the token ring protocol. novices, in addition to execs within the box of communique protocols, will take advantage of either the equipment of specification defined, and the protocols mentioned during this publication.
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Good Programming Practice Adopt a programming style, and then follow it consistently in all of your programs. 5 Compiling, Linking, and Executing the Fortran Program Before the sample program can be run, it must be compiled into object code with a Fortran compiler, and then linked with a computer’s system libraries to produce an executable program (Figure 2-2). These two steps are usually done together in response to a single programmer command. The details of compiling and linking are different for every compiler and operating system.
2 There is an alternate version of the STOP statement called ERROR STOP. This version stops the program, but it also notifies the operating system that the program failed to execute properly. An example might be: ERROR STOP 'Cannot access database' This version of the STOP statement was added in Fortran 2008, and it might be useful if you need to inform an operating system script that a program failed abnormally. 2 There is a philosophical disagreement among Fortran programmers about the use of the STOP statement.
Express the following binary numbers as their decimal equivalents: (a) 11102 (b) 010101012 (c) 10012 3. Express the following binary numbers as octal and hexadecimal numbers: (a) 11100101101011012 (b) 11101111012 (c) 10010111001111112 4. Is the fourth bit of the number 13110 a 1 or a 0? 5. Assume that the following numbers are the contents of a character variable. Find the character corresponding to each number according to the ASCII encoding scheme (The character codes in the ASCII encoding scheme are defined in Appendix A): (a) 7710 (b) 011110112 (c) 24910 6.
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