Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist by Daniel Byman

By Daniel Byman

At the morning of September eleven, 2001, the whole global used to be brought to Al Qaeda and its enigmatic chief, Osama bin encumbered. however the association that modified the face of terrorism perpetually and unleashed a whirlwind of counterterrorism job and significant wars have been at the scene lengthy prior to that eventful morning. In Al Qaeda, the Islamic kingdom, and the worldwide Jihadist stream: What every person must Know, Daniel L. Byman, an eminent pupil of heart East terrorism and overseas safeguard who served at the Sept. 11 fee, presents a pointy and concise assessment of Al Qaeda, from its humble origins within the mountains of Afghanistan to the current, explaining its perseverance and variation seeing that Sep 11 and the boundaries of U.S. and allied counterterrorism efforts.

The association that might become referred to as Al Qaeda lines its roots to the anti-Soviet jihad in Afghanistan within the Eighties. based because the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan, Al Qaeda completed a level of overseas notoriety with a sequence of superb assaults within the Nineteen Nineties; besides the fact that, it used to be the dramatic attacks at the international alternate heart and the Pentagon on 9-11 that actually introduced Al Qaeda onto the worldwide level. The assaults endowed the association with world-historical significance and provoked an overpowering counterattack by way of the USA and different western nations. inside of a yr of 11th of September, the center of Al Qaeda have been chased out of Afghanistan and right into a number of refuges around the Muslim global. Splinter teams and franchised offshoots have been lively within the 2000s in nations like Pakistan, Iraq, and Yemen, yet via early 2011, after greater than a decade of relentless counterterrorism efforts by way of the us and different Western army and intelligence prone, such a lot felt that Al Qaeda's second had handed. With the dying of Osama bin encumbered in might of that yr, many envisioned that Al Qaeda was once in its demise throes. Shockingly, Al Qaeda has staged a notable comeback within the previous couple of years. In virtually each clash within the Muslim global, from parts of the Xanjing area in northwest China to the African subcontinent, Al Qaeda franchises or like-minded teams have performed a task. Al Qaeda's severe Salafist ideology keeps to attract radicalized Sunni Muslims in the course of the international, and it has effectively altered its organizational constitution in order that it could possibly either climate America's enduring full-spectrum attack and tailor its message to express audiences.

Authoritative and hugely readable, Byman's account bargains readers insightful and penetrating solutions to the elemental questions on Al Qaeda: who they're, the place they got here from, the place they're going-and, possibly so much critically-what we will be able to do approximately it.

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Extra resources for Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know®

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No one at the time expected that attackers would seize a plane with weapons like knives or that they would deliberately crash it, so the passengers had good reason to avoid a confrontation and hope for a rescue attempt after the plane landed. This advantage of surprise evaporated quickly. The passengers on United Airlines Flight 93, which had departed 25 minutes later than scheduled, used their cell phones to contact friends and relatives after the hijacking began. After learning the fate of the other flights, they attempted to seize control of the airplane.

Two movements dominated the jihadist cause in Egypt: the IG (Islamic Group, also known by its Arabic name, al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya) and EIJ (Egyptian Islamic Jihad, also known as al-Jihad). The IG was the larger and far more important of the two in the domestic Egyptian context, but it was EIJ and its leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri, that would come to play an important role in Al Qaeda. EIJ grew out of the followers of Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj, whose organization was responsible for the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.

31 Moreover, the CIA feared that risky covert actions such as working with Afghan opponents of Al Qaeda could later discredit the CIA when the political pendulum shifted; this fear would manifest a decade later as the memory of the 9/11 attacks faded and CIA efforts to get tough on Al Qaeda, including the torture of detainees, were criticized by lawmakers and others in the government as excessive and illegal, even though the Agency had extensive White House authorization. The CIA was widely blamed because many of its covert action and collection attempts yielded little, but compared to other government bodies, the Agency was fighting hard.

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