By Chase Robinson
'Abd al-Malik, who got here to prominence in the course of the moment civil struggle of early Islam, governed the Islamic empire from 692 until eventually 705. not just did he effectively suppress uprising in the Muslim global and extend its frontiers, yet in lots of respects he based the empire itself. via approximately seven-hundred, the kinds of a brand new realm, which stretched from North Arica within the west to Iran within the east, has taken transparent form with 'Abd al-Malik at its head. This ebook covers the beginnings and upward push to strength of this immensely influential caliph, in addition to his spiritual regulations and ideas, his economic, administrative and army reforms, and his legacy, together with the Dome of the Rock, the oldest surviving enormous construction erected via Muslims.
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In this and other respects, the numismatic record is extremely revealing: the story of the silver coinage of the late 680s until 692 is dominated by Zubayrid issues, while Marwanid examples are relatively few and far between. If one knew only the contemporaneous coins and none of the later histories, one would conclude that Ibn al-Zubayr was the ruler and ‘Abd al-Malik the rebel. What Ibn al-Zubayr did, then, was rule, and the historical record, in addition to the mint names that appear on his coins, allow us to sketch out the expanse of his caliphate.
Al-Hanafiyya Son of ‘Ali. Muhammad b. Marwan ‘Abd al-Malik’s brother; governor of northern provinces. Mu‘awiya Governor in Syria for ‘Uthman and then caliph (r. 661–680). Muhajirun ‘Emigrants’ – those who emigrated with Muhammad from Mecca to Medina. Mukhtar Rebel during the Second Civil War. Mus‘ab b. al-Zubayr Brother of Ibn al-Zubayr; governor of Iraq. Shabib b. Yazid Kharijite rebel in Iraq. Sufyanids Family of the clan of Umayyads who ruled before the Marwanids. ‘Umar Second caliph (r. 634–644).
There is little reason to think that many outside of a relatively small circle of Umayyads and Syrians recognised ‘Abd al-Malik’s claim to the caliphate before he defeated Ibn al-Zubayr in October of 692, and even after this, it is fair to assume – and assume we must, since we have so little contemporaneous evidence to hand – that throughout his rule of thirteen and one-half (rather than twenty) years, many Muslims outside of Syria never regarded ‘Abd al-Malik as anything other than a usurper and tyrant.
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