By Albert C. Perrino Jr. MD, Scott T. Reeves MD MBA FACC
--Up-to-date perform instructions through the ASE,SCA, and eu organization of Echocardiography.
--Featured bankruptcy on 3D echocardiography
-- moveable measurement for simple use at the go
--New educational bankruptcy on mitral repair
--New bankruptcy on evolving position of TEE in the course of coronary revascularization
--Purchase comes with an publication with full-motion video and large colour art embedded seamlessly into every one chapter
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Extra resources for A practical approach to transesophageal echocardiography
LVIDd, left ventricular internal diameter at end diastole; LVIDs, left ventricular internal diameter at end systole; LV, left ventricular. B: Measurements made for the calculation of endocardial fractional shortening may also be used to calculate end diastolic volume, end systolic volume, and ejection fraction using the Cubed (Teichholz) formula. indd 52 14/06/13 1:54 PM 53 3. Left Ventricular Systolic Performance and Pathology Although fractional shortening gives a rapid and simple estimate of LV systolic function, it is not a representative measurement in asymmetric ventricles such as those with regional wall abnormalities or aneurysmal deformation (1).
1. Single plane ellipsoid Single plane ellipsoid method: LV volume (mL) = 8 × (LVALAX)2/3πLVIDmajor The LV volume is calculated assuming an ellipsoid shape. The long-axis diameter (LVIDmajor) and corresponding LV cavity area (LVALax) obtained from a single long-axis view (ME four- or two-chamber, or TG twochamber) are required for this formula (Fig. 4). The basal border of the LV cavity area is best delineated by a straight line connecting the mitral valve (MV) insertions at the lateral and septal borders of the annulus (1).
The Cubed formula (Teichholz method) Cubed formula: LV volume (mL) = (LVIDminor)3 This formula assumes that the LV is approximated by a prolate ellipse, which has an SAX (minor axis, LVIDminor) equal to one-half of the long axis (or major axis, LVIDmajor) (Fig. 3). Measurement of the minor axis can be performed in the midesophageal (ME) two- or four-chamber or the TG two-chamber view and are taken at the mitral chordae level (1). Although the cube formula is the simplest formula, it compounds measurement errors because of the cube function and overestimates the volume of dilated ventricles.